True or False : A CIA Analyst's Guide to Spotting Fake News
by Otis, Cindy L.







Introductionx
PART I THE HISTORY OF FAKE NEWS
Section I Fake News Has Been Around a Lot Longer Than You Think
Chapter 1 The Impact of Fake News
1(11)
The Gruesome Story of Jack the Ripper
Chapter 2 The Beginning of Fake News
12(12)
The Glorious Victory of Ramses II
The Demonic Rulers of Constantinople
Insert: The Printing Press
22(2)
Chapter 3 Fake News and the French Monarchy
24(14)
The War of Words Between Marie de Medicis and Her Son
Marie Antoinette, Destroyer of France
Insert: The First Newspapers
36(2)
Chapter 4 Fake News and America's Founders
38(10)
Benjamin Franklin's Very Special Printing Press
When Thomas Jefferson Really Wanted to Be President
Chapter 5 Fake News Takes On Science
48(15)
The Wild Worlds of Edgar Allan Poe
The New York Sun's Fantastical Lunar Creatures
That Time the Wichita City Eagle Said the Earth Would Explode
Insert: The Impact of the Telegraph on Fake News
59(4)
Section 2 Yellow Journalism, Propaganda, and Disinformation, Oh My!
Chapter 6 Yellow Journalism
63(9)
Hearst, Pulitzer, and the Spanish-American War They Sold
Insert: Backlash Against Yellow Journalism
70(2)
Chapter 7 Fake News at War
72(11)
WWII: How the Nazis Used Lies to Kill
When the British Faked a Mutiny Over the Radio
The Fake Military That Might Have Just Won the War
Chapter 8 When Racist Conspiracies Become Fake News
83(11)
How First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt's Clubs Secretly Planned an Uprising
Insert: The Alien Invasion That Wasn't
90(4)
Chapter 9 Smoking Is Good for You and Other Fake News About Your Health
94(10)
The Tricks of the Tobacco Industry Research Committee
Dr. Andrew Wakefield and His Fake Medical Study About Vaccines
Insert: The Introduction of Television
102(2)
Chapter 10 The Fake News Intelligence Battles
104(13)
When the Soviets Claimed the US Created HIV-AIDS
Insert: Welcome to the Internet
112(5)
Section 3 Drowning in Fake News
Chapter 11 Going Digital
117(11)
The Syrian Woman Who Didn't Exist
A Fake News Website Empire
When George Bush Couldn't Get Rid of Fake Campaign Websites
Insert: Fact-Checking Websites
126(2)
Chapter 12 Fake News Goes Viral
128(12)
Fake Rumors That Killed Innocent People in Mexico
How Fake News Almost Started a War
When Russia Definitely Didn't Shoot Down an Airplane
Chapter 13 Fake News Takes Over Elections
140(26)
Hillary Clinton and the Man Who Shot Up a Pizza Parlor
The Guy Who Paid His Student-Loan Bill with Fake News
That Time Russian Troll Farms Tried to Rig the US Election
Insert: Fake News Weaponized Around the World
161(5)
PART II HOW WE FIGHT BACK!
Chapter 14 Facts vs. Opinions
166(10)
The Study That Shows It's Hard to Tell the Difference
Exercise: Fact or Opinion?
174(2)
Chapter 15 I'm Biased, You're Biased, We're All Biased
176(13)
La-La-La, I'm Not Listening--A Study
Cognitive Dissonance and the Aliens That Aren't Coming for Us
Why Negativity Bias Makes Us All Eeyore
The Author Makes a Confession About the Oscar Pistorius Trial and Confirmation Bias
How to Check Your Biases
Exercise: Identify Your Biases
188(1)
Chapter 16 Understanding Bias in News Media
189(13)
Unintentional Bias, aka When It's By Accident
Intentional Bias, aka When It's Definitely On Purpose
And How to Tell the Difference
Exercise: Can You Spot the Bias?
196(6)
Chapter 17 How to Spot Fake News Articles
202(20)
Titles That Make You Go Click, aka Clickbait
All the Red Flags
Why Trusted Sources Matter
Exercise: Real or Fake?
216(6)
Chapter 18 73% of People Say They Don't Understand Polling, and Other Fake Stats
222(16)
Thomas Dewey Who?
The Part Where You Learn to Spot Fake Polls
Exercise: Polling Practice
232(6)
Chapter 19 Your Eyes Are Lying: Spotting Fake Photos and Videos
238(14)
The Time a Teen Activist Did Not Rip Up the Constitution
North Korea's Bad Photoshopping Skills
How to Spot Fake Photos
No, This Commercial Airline Didn't Do a 360° Roll
Fake Videos, aka Deep Fakes
Exercise: How Was It Photoshopped?
247(5)
Chapter 20 Memes Aren't News and Other Social-Media Tips
252(22)
The Man Who Jumped to a Lot of Conclusions About Some Buses
Social Media Tips
Political Memes That Fool Us
Exercise: To Trust or Not to Trust?
267(7)
Chapter 21 Managing the Chaos of the Breaking-News Cycle
274(14)
The Day a Mass Shooter Targeted a Concert
What Breaking News Is and Isn't
How to Not Panic
Exercise: Sorting Through Breaking Neivs
281(7)
Chapter 22 Conclusion
288(4)
The Part Where It Takes All of Us
Acknowledgments292(3)
Notes295


"A YA Nonfiction book about the history of Fake News and tips for how to spot it"-





Cindy L. Otis, author of True or False, knew that she wanted to join the CIA at seven years old when her dad let her watch her first James Bond movie. And after receiving her bachelor's degree in international politics and her master's in international relations with an emphasis in national security from Boston University, her dream came true. Cindy spent most of her career as a military analyst, but also served as an intelligence briefer to the White House, and later, as Branch Chief. She was the recipient of the Army Civilian Service Medal and the CIA's Donald Cryer Award. Cindy now works in cybersecurity, regularly speaking and writing about political and national security issues for various media outlets. She also continues her life-long work advocating for disability rights.






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