Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation
by Roth, Kristi, Ph.D.; Zittel, Lauriece, Ph.D.; Pyfer, Jean; Auxter, David







Prefacexxi
Acknowledgmentsxxv
Reviewersxxvii
Part 1 The Scope1(24)
Chapter 1 Adapted Physical Education
3(22)
Objectives
3(1)
Who Is Disabled?
4(2)
Myth of Disability
5(1)
Impact of Disability
5(1)
Disability Clarification
5(1)
The Process of Becoming Disabled
6(1)
Contributions by Adapted Physical Educators and Recreation Specialists
7(3)
Utilizing Evidence-Based Practices and Assistive Devices and Technologies
8(1)
Physical Activity and the Built Environment
8(1)
Addressing Potential Secondary Conditions
8(1)
Enriching the Lives of Others
9(1)
Definition of Physical Education
10(1)
Definition of Adapted Physical Education
11(1)
Benefits of Physical Education for Learners with Disabilities
11(1)
Roles of the Adapted Physical Educator
12(1)
Prevalence
13(1)
Advocacy and Adapted Physical Education
14(4)
Federal Legislation and the Civil Rights of Individuals with Disabilities
18(4)
The Teacher's Reality
22(1)
Summary
23(1)
Review Questions
23(1)
References
23(2)
Part 2 Key Techniques25(272)
Chapter 2 Adapted Physical Education in the Public Schools
27(28)
Objectives
27(1)
Adapted Physical Education
27(12)
Philosophy
30(1)
Definition of Adapted Physical Education
30(1)
Goals and Objectives
30(1)
Criteria for Eligibility
31(1)
Referral Process
32(1)
Assessment Procedures
32(1)
Individualized Education Program
33(1)
Instructional Options/Delivery Models
33(2)
Equipment
35(3)
Accountability
38(1)
Interaction with Other Special Education Personnel
39(7)
Public Education
46(7)
The State and Local Education Agency
47(1)
Site-Based Management
48(1)
School-Family Partnerships
49(4)
Summary
53(1)
Review Questions
53(1)
References
54(1)
Chapter 3 Determining Educational Needs through Assessment
55(36)
Objectives
55(1)
Purposes of Assessment
56(1)
Matching Type of Assessment to Purpose
57(4)
Legal Mandates for Determining Present Level of Performance
61(2)
Types of Assessment
63(7)
Evaluating Physical Fitness
70(1)
Test Selection Criteria
70(10)
Need for Utilizing a Standardized Test
71(1)
Standardization
71(6)
Type of Disability
77(3)
The Testing Process
80(9)
Preparations for Testing
81(1)
Administering the Test
82(2)
Organizing and Interpreting the Test Results
84(5)
Summary
89(1)
Review Questions
90(1)
References
90(1)
Chapter 4 Developing the Individualized Education Program
91(50)
Objectives
91(3)
Professional Personnel Who May be Involved in the Individualized Education Program and/or the Individual-Transition Plan
94(17)
Direct Service Providers
94(5)
Related Service Providers
99(12)
Description of Each Component of the IEP
111(14)
Present Level of Educational Achievement
111(2)
Goals
113(3)
Specific Educational Services
116(3)
Related Services
119(1)
Extent to Which the Student Will Not Participate in Regular Education
120(1)
Modifications/Accommodations Needed for the Student to Participate in Statewide and District-Wide Achievement Tests
120(1)
Statement of Needed Transition Services
121(1)
Positive Behavior Management
121(2)
Projected Dates for Initiation and Termination of Services
123(1)
Appropriate Objective Criteria and Evaluation Procedures
123(1)
Additional Components of Most School-Based IEP Documents
123(2)
Participants in the IEP/Multidisciplinary Team Meeting
125(2)
The IEP Meeting Agenda
127(4)
Encouraging and Maximizing Parent Participation in the IEP Process
131(4)
Duties of the Professionals
135(1)
Encouraging and Maximizing Student Participation in the IEP Process
135(2)
Summary
137(1)
Review Questions
137(1)
References
137(4)
Chapter 5 Teaching to Meet Learners' Needs
141(42)
Objectives
141(2)
Levels of Motor Function
143(1)
Incidental Versus Planned Learning
144(1)
Facilitating Skill Development
145(31)
Teach Specific Skills: Top-Down
146(3)
Eliminate Deficiencies: Bottom-Up
149(1)
Basic Neurological Building Blocks
150(10)
Perceptual Motor Processes
160(12)
Physical Fitness
172(3)
Motor Fitness
175(1)
Evidence-Based Practice and Response to Intervention
176(1)
Modifications or Adaptations
177(2)
Generalization to Community Environments
179(1)
Commercial Programs
179(1)
Parental Involvement
180(1)
Summary
180(1)
Review Questions
181(1)
References
181(2)
Chapter 6 Delivering Services in the Least Restrictive Environment
183(54)
Objectives
183(1)
The Least Restrictive Environment and Inclusive Education
183(5)
LRE and Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Physical Education
188(1)
Preparing for the Least Restrictive Environment-A Proactive Approach
188(10)
Preparing the Community
189(1)
The Building Principal: The Key to Effective Instructional Programs
190(1)
Preparing Parents
191(4)
Preparing Professionals, Including the General Physical Educator
195(2)
Preparing the Paraeducator
197(1)
Variables Affecting Instruction in Physical Education in the Least Restrictive Environment
198(20)
Accessibility and the LRE
199(2)
Curricular Variables Affecting Instruction in the LRE
201(3)
Assessment Variables Affecting Instruction in the LRE
204(1)
Support Personnel Variables Affecting Instruction in the LRE
204(8)
Teaching Style as a Variable Affecting Instruction in the LRE
212(2)
Management of Behavior as a Variable Affecting Instruction in the LRE
214(2)
Grading as a Variable Affecting Instruction in the LRE
216(1)
Equipment as a Variable Affecting Instruction in the LRE
217(1)
Working Document for the IEP Committee: Least Restrictive Environment in Physical Education
218(9)
Specific Strategies for Creating an LRE for Learners with Disabilities
222(3)
Collaboration to Create an LRE
225(2)
The Consultant's Contribution to an LRE
227(6)
Summary
233(1)
Review Questions
233(1)
References
233(4)
Chapter 7 Enhancing Student Behavior
237(26)
Objectives
237(2)
Assertive, Effective Discipline
239(2)
Establishing the Rules
239(2)
Identifying Problematic Performance and Behavior
241(4)
Need to Assess and Monitor Performance and Behavior
241(1)
Define the Problem
242(1)
Determine Why the Problem Is Occurring
242(1)
Address the Problem
243(2)
Maximizing Student Performance
245(3)
Applying Good Reinforcement Practices
245(3)
Minimizing Distractions
248(1)
Managing Group Behavior
248(11)
Handling the Disruptive Behavior
251(4)
Consistent Management Techniques
255(3)
Contingency Contracting
258(1)
Support in School to Manage Behavior
259(1)
Discipline
260(1)
Summary
260(1)
Review Questions
260(1)
References
261(2)
Chapter 8 Teaching with Technology
263(16)
Objectives
263(2)
Assessment
265(2)
Instruction
267(3)
Equipment
270(1)
Communication
271(1)
Administration
272(1)
Behavior Management and Classroom Structure
273(3)
Summary
276(1)
Review Questions
276(1)
References
277(2)
Chapter 9 Transition Programming/Community Recreation and Sport
279(18)
Objectives
279(1)
Transition
279(5)
Settings for Transition Goals
283(1)
Community Sport and Recreation
284(4)
Deaflympics, Special Olympics, Paralympics
288(5)
Deaflympics
288(1)
Special Olympics
289(2)
Paralympics
291(2)
Summary
293(1)
Review Questions
293(1)
References
294(3)
Part 3 Needs of Specific Populations297(348)
Chapter 10 Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers
299(80)
Objectives
299(1)
The Potential of Quality Early Intervention
300(1)
The Eight Types of Intelligence-The Philosophical Foundation of Effective and Appropriate Early Intervention
300(4)
Linguistic Intelligence
302(1)
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
302(1)
Musical Intelligence
302(1)
Spatial Intelligence
303(1)
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
303(1)
Interpersonal Intelligence
303(1)
Intrapersonal Intelligence
304(1)
Naturalist Intelligence
304(1)
Developmentally Appropriate Assessment of Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers
304(1)
Recommendations for Screening and Assessment of Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers
305(9)
The Portfolio Assessment Process
314(4)
Linguistic Intelligence
316(1)
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
316(1)
Musical Intelligence
316(1)
Spatial Intelligence
316(1)
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
316(1)
Interpersonal Intelligence
317(1)
Intrapersonal Intelligence
317(1)
Naturalist Intelligence
317(1)
Ages and Stages-Understanding Typical and Atypical Development
318(9)
Active Start: Recommendations Regarding Activity for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers
326(1)
Early Intervention Programs-Birth to 3 Years
327(20)
Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families
327(1)
Infant-Parent Relationships in Families with an Infant with a Disability
328(3)
Early Intervention in Natural, Family-Centered Settings
331(6)
Movement and Play in the Individual Family Service Plan
337(1)
Role of the Adapted Physical Education Specialist with Infants and Toddlers in Natural Settings
338(1)
Strategies and Techniques for Enhancing Sensory Stimulation
339(1)
Strategies and Techniques for Enhancing the Development of Equilibrium Behaviors
340(2)
Strategies and Techniques for Developing Simple Locomotor Competency
342(2)
Strategies and Techniques for Facilitating/Scaffolding Symbolic Play Behavior
344(1)
Strategies and Techniques for Scaffolding Learning
344(1)
Demonstrating How Simple Materials Found (in the Home or Other Settings) Can Be Used to Facilitate Play and the Development of Gross Motor and Fine Motor Skills
345(1)
Demonstrating the Use of Simple Toys
346(1)
Helping the Parent (or Other Caregiver) Select Toys That Facilitate Communication between the Caregiver and the Child
346(1)
Helping the Parent Select Toys That Empower the Child
347(1)
Preschool Programs-Ages 3 to 5 Years
347(9)
Quality Movement, Play, and Wellness Experiences in Preschool Programs
352(4)
The Indoor Active Learning Center
356(2)
The Outdoor Active Learning Center
358(6)
Basic Standards for the Preschool Outdoor Play Area
364(1)
Responsibilities of the Adapted Physical Education Specialist
364(9)
Active Learning Center to Support a Transportation Theme
369(1)
Atypical Play Behavior
369(1)
Management of Behavior in the Preschool Learning Environment
370(1)
Cultural Diversity in the Active Learning Centers
371(2)
Summary
373(1)
Review Questions
373(1)
References
373(6)
Chapter 11 Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
379(34)
Objectives
379(1)
Definition
380(2)
Incidence
382(1)
Causes
383(6)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
384(1)
Down Syndrome
384(3)
Fragile X Syndrome
387(2)
Characteristics of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities
389(6)
Cognitive Characteristics
390(2)
Physical Characteristics
392(3)
The Physical Education Program
395(8)
Testing
395(2)
Curriculum Design
397(1)
Teaching Strategies
398(4)
Modifications
402(1)
Modifications for Students with Severe Intellectual Disabilities
403(4)
Aquatics
404(3)
Summary
407(1)
Review Questions
407(1)
References
408(5)
Chapter 12 Autism Spectrum Disorder
413(26)
Objectives
413(1)
Definition
414(3)
Incidence
417(1)
Causes
417(1)
Characteristics
418(2)
The Physical Education Program
420(13)
Testing for Autism Spectrum Disorder
420(1)
Curriculum Design
421(2)
Teaching Strategies
423(10)
Summary
433(1)
Review Questions
433(1)
References
434(5)
Chapter 13 Specific Learning Disabilities
439(20)
Objectives
439(1)
Definition of Specific Learning Disability
440(1)
Incidence of Specific Learning Disability
441(1)
Causes of Specific Learning Disability
441(3)
Characteristics of Specific Learning Disability
444(5)
Neurophysiological Differences
444(1)
Sensory Input Processing Differences
445(1)
Problems Processing Information
446(2)
Language Differences
448(1)
Memory Deficits
448(1)
Short Attention Span
449(1)
Testing to Determine Motor Functioning Levels
449(1)
Teaching Strategies
450(3)
The Physical Education Program
451(1)
Modifications
452(1)
Summary
453(1)
Review Questions
454(1)
References
454(5)
Chapter 14 Emotional Disturbance
459(32)
Objectives
459(1)
Definition of Emotional Disturbance
460(2)
Continuum of Emotional Disorders
462(2)
Types of Mental Health Disorders
464(9)
Internalizing Disorders
465(3)
Externalizing Disorders
468(5)
Incidence of Emotional Disorders
473(1)
Causes of Emotional Disturbance
474(1)
Characteristics of Learners with Emotional Disturbance
475(2)
A Supportive Learning Environment for Children with Emotional Disturbance
477(1)
Special Considerations
477(2)
Testing
479(1)
Teaching Strategies
480(3)
The Physical Education Program
483(2)
Modifications/Adaptations/Inclusion Techniques
485(1)
Summary
486(1)
Review Questions
487(1)
References
487(4)
Chapter 15 Physically Disabling Conditions
491(52)
Objectives
491(1)
Definition and Scope of Physically Disabling Conditions
492(46)
Neurological Disorders
493(21)
Orthopedic Disabilities
514(13)
Traumatic Injuries
527(11)
Summary
538(1)
Review Questions
539(1)
References
539(4)
Chapter 16 Communicative Disorders
543(38)
Objectives
543(1)
Deafness and Hearing Impairments
544(1)
Definition of Deaf or Hearing Impaired
545(1)
Incidence of Hearing Impairments in Children
546(1)
Causes of Hearing Impairments
546(2)
Conductive Hearing Impairments
547(1)
Sensorineural Hearing Impairments
548(1)
Mixed Hearing Loss
548(1)
Characteristics of Students with Hearing Impairments
548(7)
Unilateral Hearing Loss
548(1)
Clues That Indicate Hearing Loss
549(5)
Motor Characteristics of Individuals with Hearing Impairment
554(1)
The Physical Education Program
555(1)
Testing
555(1)
Curriculum Design
556(2)
Integrating Students with a Hearing Impairment
556(2)
Teaching Strategies
558(14)
Communication
558(6)
Teaching Strategies
564(4)
Deaf-Blind
568(1)
Characteristics
569(1)
The Physical Education Program
570(2)
Speech and Language Disorders
572(4)
Definition
573(1)
Incidence
573(1)
Causes
573(1)
Fluency Disorders: Stuttering and Cluttering
574(1)
Receptive Language Disorder
575(1)
Expressive Language Disorder
575(1)
Summary
576(1)
Review Questions
576(1)
Student Activities
577(1)
References
577(4)
Chapter 17 Visual Impairments
581(26)
Objectives
581(1)
Definition of Visual Impairments
582(1)
Incidence of Visual Impairments
583(1)
Causes of Visual Impairments
584(3)
Visual Conditions
585(1)
Impairments to the Extraocular Muscle System
585(2)
Characteristics of Visual Impairments
587(5)
Motor Development
588(1)
Perceptual Development
589(1)
Physical Fitness
589(1)
Psychological and Social Adjustment
590(2)
The Physical Education Program
592(1)
Testing
592(1)
Curriculum Design
592(4)
Peer Assistance
593(1)
Orientation and Mobility Training
594(1)
Safety
595(1)
Teaching Strategies
596(6)
Teaching Modifications
597(5)
Summary
602(1)
Review Questions
603(1)
Student Activities
603(1)
References
603(4)
Chapter 18 Other Health Impairments
607(38)
Objectives
607(1)
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
608(4)
Definition
609(1)
Incidence
609(1)
Causes
610(1)
Characteristics
610(1)
Special Considerations
611(1)
The Physical Education Program and Teaching Strategies
611(1)
AIDS
612(3)
Definition
612(1)
Incidence
612(1)
Causes
612(1)
Characteristics
613(1)
Special Considerations
613(1)
The Physical Education Program and Teaching Strategies
614(1)
Anemia
615(4)
Definition
615(1)
Incidence
616(1)
Causes
616(1)
Characteristics
617(1)
Special Considerations
618(1)
The Physical Education Program and Teaching Strategies
619(1)
Asthma
619(5)
Definition
619(1)
Incidence
619(1)
Causes
620(1)
Characteristics
620(1)
Special Considerations
621(1)
The Physical Education Program and Teaching Strategies
622(2)
Childhood Cancer
624(5)
Definition
624(1)
Incidence
624(1)
Causes
625(1)
Characteristics
625(1)
Types of Childhood Cancers
626(1)
Special Considerations
627(1)
The Physical Education Program and Teaching Strategies
628(1)
Cystic Fibrosis
629(3)
Definition
629(1)
Incidence
629(1)
Causes
629(1)
Characteristics
629(1)
Special Considerations
630(1)
The Physical Education Program and Teaching Strategies
631(1)
Diabetes
632(13)
Definition
632(1)
Incidence
632(1)
Causes
632(1)
Characteristics
633(1)
Special Considerations
634(2)
The Physical Education Program and Teaching Strategies
636(3)
Summary
639(1)
Review Questions
639(1)
References
640(5)
Glossary645(32)
Index677


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