Identity : The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of Resentment
by Fukuyama, Francis







Prefaceix
1 The Politics Of Dignity
3(9)
2 The Third Part Of The Soul
12(13)
3 Inside And Outside
25(12)
4 From Dignity To Democracy
37(5)
5 Revolutions Of Dignity
42(8)
6 Expressive Individualism
50(9)
7 Nationalism And Religion
59(15)
8 The Wrong Address
74(7)
9 Invisible Man
81(10)
10 The Democratization Of Dignity
91(14)
11 From Identity To Identities
105(19)
12 We The People
124(16)
13 Stories Of Peoplehood
140(23)
14 What Is To Be Done?
163(22)
Notes185(14)
Bibliography199(6)
Index205


The New York Times best-selling author of The Origins of Political Order shares a provocative examination of modern identity politics that assesses its origins, effects and implications for domestic and international affairs of state.





Francis Fukuyama is the Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow at Stanford University's Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies. He has previously taught at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University and at the George Mason University School of Public Policy. Fukuyama was a researcher at the RAND Corporation and served as the deputy director for the State Department's policy planning staff. He is the author of Political Order and Political Decay, The Origins of Political Order, The End of History and the Last Man, Trust, and America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. He lives with his wife in California.





The renowned political scientist argues persuasively, and urgently, that a desire for recognition of one's dignity is inherent in every human being—and is necessary for a thriving democracy.Drawing on Luther, Rousseau, Kant, and Hegel, among others, Fukuyama (International Studies/Stanford Univ.; Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy, 2014, etc.) offers a historical overview leading to the modern concept of identity as comprised of thymos ("a universal aspect of human personality that craves recognition"), a belief in the distinction between the inner and outer self, and an evolving concept of universal dignity. "The broadening and universalization of dignity turns the private quest for self into a political project," he writes. The author ascribes the contemporary rise of identity politics to a yearning "for equal recognition by groups that have been marginalized by their societies." These groups, mobilize d by political leaders around the idea that their dignity has been disparaged or disregarded, fuel a "politics of resentment." Fukuyama sees nothing wrong with identity politics, unless "ever narrower group identities" threaten "the possibility of communication and collective action." When identity groups—seeking recognition on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, or religion—see one another as threats, they will resist identifying themselves with "more integrative national identities" that are essential for democratic societies. Economic modernization and rapid social change shatter a sense of community and lead to "confusing pluralism" that often causes individuals to align themselves with religious or nationalistic groups. "Both nationalism and Islamism," writes the author, "can thus be seen as a species of identity politics." He faults the left for failing to build solidarity around large collectivities (the working class, for example), instead focusing on " e very smaller" marginalized groups. To counter this fragmentation, Fukuyama advises that "successful assimilation of foreigners" might curb vociferous populism, required national service could encourage "virtue and public spiritedness," and basic civics must become a strong part of public education to foster informed, open-minded citizens. A cogent analysis of dire threats to democracy. Copyright Kirkus 2018 Kirkus/BPI Communications. All rights reserved.






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